How to pronounce the Chinese model of radiation influence on how to improve China’s model. By CITIC Publishing House of the Singapore Zheng yongnian, Director of the East Asian Institute at the National University’s China pattern (revised edition) went public in December of this year.
Zheng yongnian said in a preface to the revision, although China patterns in various ways, but its core is unique to China’s political-economic model, both interrelated and mutually reinforcing. Full nationalisation and the full privatization of the economy, China is not the norm, mixed economy model is the norm of China’s economy. Faced by China’s economic problems can only be resolved by recognition of the norm as a precondition.
The following is an excerpt of the Chinese model (as amended) preamble, publishing house surging News (www.thepaper.CN) published. Cut slightly:
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Rationality, the Chinese model is an objective reality. Just like building a House, House must have had a pattern. Question is how to look at and comment on the House. Here a more scientific and objective way, to study the many problems about the House: this House is like? How to cover that? Why cover one way rather than another? The House Foundation solid? How to improve? And so on. But also from the aesthetic point of view to look at the House. If it’s the latter, then political and moral tendency becomes inevitable. Is a pity is that so far, China patterns are mainly taken from the aesthetic point of view, China pattern is not known to exist, and comments on its aesthetic is countless.
Some people don’t recognize or belittle the Chinese model, because they think of patterns as a very good thing. This is also inconsistent with history. In the social sphere, any model has its advantages and its disadvantages, there is an absolutely ideal mode does not exist. Any model that is historic, and the Western model as well. For example, the Western model of democracy have come a long way, from the early days of Golden liberty, to industrialization of the business elite democracy, to today’s mass democracy, experienced great change. Western market, too, from the raw capitalism of the early Marxist said, up to now the welfare capitalism, there is a process of evolution, there is an improvement in process, there is a progressive process. That is, any model that is not set in stone, in different historical periods, we must reform itself in order to meet the needs of the times.
China’s model is also an objective, but any country, any kind of culture has the right to see, to explain this pattern. Because of this, between East and West on the mode of China’s argument is never interrupted. Like the Western-style democracy, Asians often from their own point of view of Western models of democracy, they have come to the conclusion, with Westerners to see their model of democracy is not the same. It is important, to China’s objective mode and a mode of aesthetic distinction. Too much would lead to excessive politicization of aesthetics or morality.
In China itself, Chinese model already exists, so it is important to answer “who am I” question is the question answer what exactly is a Chinese model. This task has become very important. Internally, more and more Chinese people for China itself is an understanding of what kind of country, have become increasingly blurred. Different social groups have started from a different ideological perspective to define her own Chinese identity. The establishment of various ideological orientation is not conducive to agree China identity must be based on the Chinese model of objective knowledge.
As far as the external, the Chinese model is the international recognition of the issues involved. Whether it is traditional or prevailing ideology, has been helpless to explain to the international community “who am I” question. This ambiguity is also the international community that China’s development is an important reason for uncertainty. Similarly, objective knowledge of certainty could only come to the Chinese model. Then, if you can’t answer “who am I” question, China’s soft power in the international community will not be able to speak of.
More important is the improvement of Chinese model. Does not acknowledge the existence of Chinese model, can only lead to neglect or disregard of the defects of the model. Only recognition of existence of Chinese model, can be carefully studied the pattern, found insufficient improvement. In fact, how to improve China’s model, is the biggest problem facing China.
I think, whether it is people’s enthusiasm for the Chinese model in previous years or the latest suspicion of the Chinese model, did not help people to understand the Chinese model. Actual scenario, discussions on Chinese model more people on their awareness and more puzzled. I think, from China at least the following three aspects are discussed.
First of all is China’s model of civilization. I tend to think of China in the history of the discussion on the macro-level. 30 years is not enough, depends on the preceding 30 years. Enough over the previous 30 years, also see transition in modern Chinese history. I believe that the Chinese model is the constancy of those structural factors to find out. Very simple, no matter how China changes or changes, Chinese always Chinese, China is not a Western or any other country. So, what factors make Chinese will always be China? These factors are the core of the Chinese model, does not identify these factors cannot understanding China’s model, of course, do not see the advantages and disadvantages of this model. At this level, people need to see the Chinese model of civilization.
From the perspective of history the Chinese model, is not difficult to find this mode of existence and its main contents. Although China patterns in many aspects, but its core is unique to China’s political-economic model, both interrelated and mutually reinforcing. China’s achievement because of this model, and many factors in this model, if out of balance, and can lead to a pattern of crisis and decline.
On the economic front, China is the model of mixed economy. In this mode, the State-owned and non-State-owned sector, the Government and the market balance. When out of balance, the crisis will follow. Where in the world can not find the economy like China, in that long history, there is a very strong State-owned sector, the State plays a direct role in key sectors of the economy. State-owned sector the country’s many functions, including public infrastructure construction, to deal with various crises that occur at any time, balancing market forces, and so on. In Han dynasty on salt and iron, it clearly, successive dynasties also practice these theories. This feature is not found in the West of the country. Some people link state-owned and the planned economy of the Mao era, this is not a historical point of view. Mao Zedong’s only existed early in the history of the role of the State to the extreme.
Many people use the economic model of the West to measure China’s economic model, seems to be the Western economic model is the goal of China’s reform. But if China can turn West, then there is no Chinese model. Everyone says China is in transition, is in transition from a planned economy to a market economy, from the State-owned economy to the private sector of the economy. It did not see the essence of Chinese model. It is because China has a strong State sector, privatization in China will not like the West. From the perspective of history, or the private economy of private economy in China has always been there, but China can go to West point of full privatization. Many economists say the solution of privatization. From the reality of China, China’s economy is only part of the privatization. Full nationalisation and the full privatization of the economy, China is not the norm, mixed economy model is the norm of China’s economy. Faced by China’s economic problems can only be resolved by recognition of the norm as a precondition.
But mixed economy often loses balance. Often is, when the absolute dominant State sector and the Government, the non-State sector and market space by squeezing, can’t play a normal role when crises arise. And in China, Western economic crisis occurs when the “invisible hand” has completely dominated the economic activities and the Government the “visible hand” when able to effectively regulate the market.
Discuss China in economy mode, once the political field has become very difficult and very sensitive. In fact, if you do not see China’s political patterns, it is difficult to understand China’s economic model, and even can be said that China’s economic model is a product of China’s political patterns, but politics always seems to be a closed area. Many people in the West focus on political criticism of China, and Chinese scholars have tended to their lack of confidence in the political system.
Politically, the Western model of democracy is about a multi-party system and separation of powers. Political change in China, also in different systems, in varying degrees, to accept and fit Western democratic and representative of the diversity of interests and interest in the event. Anyway, China did not and will not become a Western model.
So, Chinese politics where? From the perspective of history, are able to answer this question. Since its modern and Western exposure, attempts of the Chinese Western-style system, but failed. Later, for over half a century of wars and revolutions in the process of slowly transition to the modern imperial power of traditional party power. Not difficult to find, traditional and modern party of the imperial power right there are many similarities, such as the imperial power and the right of the party is a social integration, is a China unified politically, is hosting the Sage political systems. However, the party right with a modern, traditional Imperial Authority did not. Imperial power can only be marginalized, not democratic. Party power is not. Party power is the Foundation of the modern centralized system, but can also be democratized. Hong Kong to Viet Nam refugee first asylum
Western political models, often through external political issues to be resolved, so the existence of opposition parties and the opposition. China is not, whether it is traditional or modern imperial power party power, is through an open political process, looking to solve a problem of internalization of externalities. Right is the core of China’s political party, did not understand right to party, it’s hard to understand China’s political.
Historically, the two political models have their own advantages and disadvantages. In the West, based on the multiparty political democracy after hundreds of years to evolve into today’s appearance. In balanced socio-economic development of the country, Western-style democracy can work well. Although Parties alternated in power, but from a policy perspective, often present a characteristic of the party. This is mainly because there is a large middle class in the West, no matter what party, take care of the interests of the middle class. People often say that party integrated the social forces in the West. However, to a large extent, is the party of middle-class integration in the West of the Western, middle-class restricts the political extremes. From the perspective of development in the social differentiation of multiparty politics, this is particularly evident. In developing societies, because low levels of socio-economic development, social differentiation is serious, middle class is weak, did not even exist when multiparty politics, political party becomes a divisive force. In Africa, Latin America and Asia, such examples can be found everywhere.
In traditional China, the political process is fairly open. Although belonging to the emperors of the imperial power, but the right to rule (or power) is open to the public, and is highly institutionalized (bureaucratic). History shows that the more open governance, more effective governance. In contrast, when the authority is not open enough, imperial power and authority relations if not dealt with, then political crisis. Party power also has this feature. Effective governance depends on the effective opening up of the right of the party, open to all sections of society, various interests. Meanwhile, governance effectiveness depends on the systematization and specialization.
At the next level, the Chinese model refers to the pattern of reform in China. Known as “County Road” can fall into this level. “China Road” is how China’s reform is coming, say, “come from, and where to go” problem. In this sense, China’s gradual reforms clearly shows and stages. In my opinion, three-step reform of China, that is, economic reform, social reform, and political reform. This is not a value judgment that China should follow this path. This is an empirical observation, advanced countries and regions, including Europe, Asia, Japan and the “four little dragons,” also has this feature, and have gone through this process. In addition, this reform model is also consistent with the general development of common sense.
First of all, this is a process from easy to difficult. Economic reform is the easiest to put it bluntly, is to mobilize people’s awareness of substance, or what philosophers call the “evil” side out for people to pursue their own interests. That is a natural release. Social reform more difficult. If the subject is the production of economic reform, then the body is the distribution of social reform. Social reform part cut out of the people from their own pockets for the community to share, this is more difficult. Political reform is the most difficult. Political reform shows that people need to give up some powers and empower other people to share. On the authority of all of China’s political culture, to give up power than money is much more difficult.
Secondly, there are also issues related to the material basis for a reform. Economic reform priorities as economic reforms can create material base for other reforms. Economy takes precedence over social reforms is simple enough, which has no production to distribution. Wealth created can only stress distribution. On the political front, economic reform before political reform has at least two advantages: for society, create wealth and middle class economic reforms, so as to create conditions for the rational political participation; for the political elite, could provide another option for them. In conditions of political dominance, losing power would be tantamount to losing everything. But if I lose power into the economic sphere, then the politicians, political reform is not a zero-sum game. Is a State in the West, politicians if it fails in the political competition, not no way out.
So why is economic and social reforms to take place before the political reforms? System construction is the Chief of historical order. Any State of national systems and in the political, economic, social, and so on. If democracy is the product of social development, so if there are no other systems of support, democracy will be weak. Democracy is only one of the various national systems, it does not replace other aspects of a national system. From the perspective of history, the first modern State, after the democratization of the country. On the Chinese political process, if the economic and social system construction began prior to the election of democratic, it is most likely bad democracy, as we are lagging behind in economic and social development and democratization as observed by the first nation. At least no one can guarantee, in the absence of effective economic and social conditions, democracy will be of high quality.
Finally, people from specific policy areas to talk about the Chinese model, or you can call China policy, from the economic, social and political reforms in different areas to China patterns. I think people say “China case” should belong to this category. Since reform and opening up, China’s reform policy has provided people with a lot of cases.
At present, many people expressed China’s great dissatisfaction in this third level. In the area of economic policy, people’s discontent with the reform policies from a different perspective. Some people judged by Western standards of China policy. For example, some scholars believe that, only in the 1980 of the 20th century in China and reform of the early 90 ‘s, and has since gone. Because early reform of marketization and decentralization attributes such as trend instead of the 90 ‘s. Some scholars believe that China’s policy is to learn from the West, not his own model, meaning that there is no so-called “China model”. However, these views are not very reasonable. On the first view, I don’t think centralization is not not reform, decentralization is not reform. If centralization is the establishment and strengthening of government regulation of the market, so is reform. If decentralization is a local monopoly of the executive-led, rather than the market, so it’s not necessarily the reform but oligopolistic economy. On the second point, the market is not only belong to the West. Thousands of years of Chinese history and markets have been developed before. The practice of market economy in the West, but this is not to say the market is to the West. Since reform and opening up, China is learning from the West is not to say that the fact that China can not form their own models.
China’s model of three levels associated with each other, but they can also be relatively independent research. However, more important to study the issue of how to improve the Chinese model. Today talking about the improvement of the Chinese model has special significance. First of all, stress improved stress model of progressive, rather than radical change. Any model must improve itself at any time, otherwise it will degenerate, thus losing the ability to adapt to the new situation, resulting radical change. China’s history shows that radical change is often no change, radical change often means go it again. From a long-term point of view, improvements or incremental is the real change. Second, while China has formed its own model, but like the other models, it also has its disadvantages, so you must find where the weaknesses. Although you cannot form a perfect model, but is aware of its imperfections can prevent the decline is even more important and competition from other modes maintain their advantage in the process.
To truly understand the Chinese model, you must know where the defect of China’s model. China’s model is the core of China’s political and economic system. How to improve China’s model, the key is to find where the shortcomings of China’s political and economic system. Political and economic shortcomings to be corrected, dependent on political and economic systems of other defects not fatal impact on the model itself.
From the economic system, China has a more powerful State Department, which has its benefits, can effectively build national infrastructure, public works, such as response to major crises and balance the market. But if occupies absolute dominance of the State sector, government intervention in the market too, the disadvantages of this model will appear. Any thing through his head isn’t. The Western model, individualism has gone to die. Defects of the Western model, whether it is in the 1930 of the 20th century, the economic crisis, or the global financial crisis, mainly all the key financial sector into private hands and control, the Government does not have enough capacity for intervention, in the case of lax monitoring, market manipulation by private, there is a problem. China? Once the defects of China’s model is country and Government has an absolute monopoly, that markets can’t play, there will be problems. In other words, if nationalism through the head, but also produced the economic crisis.
How to improve model? Full privatisation was not realistic options in China. Problem solution needs to come from within China, China looked for. Ways to improve the model in different historical periods are different. From China, “Guo Jin, min TUI,” “enrich the poor” and the priority of economic development, social development, pattern is to look for the improvement of all aspects of the equilibrium point.
First, the State-owned sector of the border where the question to be answered. State-owned sector should have a border. The State sector cannot indefinitely, not indefinitely to areas where violations of the non-State-owned sector. To make the two areas maintain a relative balance of space, allowing them to compete. Fair competition between State-owned and non-State-owned sectors is very important.
Second, the Government and their functions and areas of the market should be clear. Areas in which the Government can play a role in what areas the Government should play a role but did not play its due role, it should exit where there is no exit to, these issues are clear. Like social reform, social security, health care, education, environmental protection and other areas of social policy, the Government apparently were still not doing enough.
Once again, to find a balance between economic development and social development. Social construction of leadership in China, the goal is good, but the objectives and the actual means used is completely disjointed. Government economic policy and social policy are still lacking, and is in many cases replaced the social policy with economic policy. For example, to community-building, a series of social reforms, such as social security, health care, education, housing and other reforms. In all countries, of which requires heavy investment, but not in China. Those areas in need of national inputs tend to be rich, in the context of social policy has not been established, often by sacrificing to pursue rapid economic development. This Chinese society was caught in a vicious cycle: faster economic development, society was more badly damaged; the more fragile, more sustainable economic development.
Finally, enrich the poor is more important to change country. This situation does not change, the Governments at all levels will become predatory Government academic said. Poverty alleviation, increase income, changing industry structure (such as encouraging the development of small and medium enterprises), the reform of the tax system, and so on can change countries enrich the poor and achieve social justice. A fair society is a stable society, the Government also has a high degree of lawful ruling ability.
Politically as well. Era of reform and opening up, China’s success on the political opening. Past success is because of a more open political process, political course open to social classes and interests, farmers opening, then open to city residents, open to the authorities at all levels, at all levels of Government. Reform of political opening has created giant power. Now: why do political reform has become so difficult? The reason is simple, the opening up of the political process and not enough. If the opening is not in the political arena, it is easy to have a vested interest groups, and the vested interests will impede further reforms.
How to continue to promote the reform? Key is to remain open. In the political field, in the mid 1990 of the 20th century opened to private entrepreneurs, it should, because the new social groups and will take it into the political process, and to expand the social foundation of the ruling party. The problem was, in the process, will not lose sight of other social groups. In the economic sector, the Chamber of Commerce is becoming more and more powerful. But Union members? If development is not the power of trade unions, so compared to the organizations and business owners, the workers would be in a weak position. Vulnerable groups, such as farmers, should also allow them to organize. Financially strong groups to organize themselves and to participate in political situations, if you do not allow the vulnerable groups to organize themselves, then they will have to lose balance. The ruling party and the Government should play a greater role, maintain strong balance between social groups and vulnerable groups of society, so that the social stability, the order can be guaranteed.
Here’s the thing, the more reform, from the system, the greater the obstacles. We want to reform a regime, but the result in undermining this system to a greater extent, rather than innovation. Where is the root of the problem? Deng Xiaoping advocated “the stones”.
Reform when there are many vested interests block reform, so he started to not touch a vested interest, but to create new interests, using the new over the old interests. Urban reforms difficult, reforms in rural areas. State-owned enterprise reform is difficult, not to change the State-owned enterprises, but to find outside of State-owned enterprises, grew out of a non-State-owned sector. This is an open process. Resulted in a huge new interest with new interests to overcome old interests. This is where the success of Deng Xiaoping. Now open enough, who played a large role in the reform and opening up new interest has become vested interest, vested interests do not want to further open.
At present, how to realize China’s model to improve? The only way out is a political opening. In terms of political openness, you can learn from other countries. Western countries, mostly through a multi-party system to achieve this goal. But the multiparty system is not the only method, there are other political way to stay open. For example, Singapore, despite one-party dominance, but has ensured that the openness of the system. Only an open political process, we will keep up the pressure, once closed, it will corrupt itself. China’s ruling party has its own history and the Soviet Union, Eastern Europe’s change history has learned many lessons. Ruling party itself how to keep open forever? This will always be the most serious challenge. But apparently, if you want to avoid the corruption itself, avoiding radical change from the community, the ruling party will have to face this challenge.
In short, we should not, as some people think China is the best in the world, not improved, nor as some people do lose confidence in China model completely. China’s model is open. History has not ended. Hegel thinks the rise of nation States in the West are the ultimate form of State, but not too long, endless war between nation States in Europe. Similarly, Francis Fukuyama in the 1990 of the 20th century that Western-style democracy is the ultimate form of Government, and end of history, but since entering the 21st century, Western-style democracy there have been a huge crisis. China has a history of openness, the Chinese model is open, open is the only sustainable, will be permanent.
Gets the experience and challenge of the Chinese model with