Recently, CITIC publishing house in the Soviet writer Vasily Grossman’s life and fate of the Chinese version. This great 750,000 words long, was recognized in Europe and America “of contemporary war and peace”, “the greatest of the 20th century Russia novel” in the watercress also has a high score of 9.5. But the Soviet Union in the 1960 ‘s, it has been banned, the publishing process a rather convoluted.
Vasily Grossman during the great patriotic war as the Red Star newspaper correspondents to go to the front cover, experiences from Moscow to conquer almost all of Berlin’s major battles, and gained a lot of first-hand information. The survival and the fate of Stalingrad structure the book, Grossman during the eight-year creation completed until 1960. In the process of identifying the publication, in February 1961, Soviet authorities sent KGB into Grossman’s home, found the manuscript of the novel. Grossman wrote to Nikita Khrushchev also to no avail. It is said that, when Mikhail Suslov in charge of ideology determining the novel “more dangerous than Pasternak’s Doctor Zhivago,” “200 years later can not be published”. With regret, in 1964, Vasily Grossman died of cancer in Moscow.
In 1974, the “father of the hydrogen bomb” with the help of Andrei Sakharov, who, backed up manuscripts of the novel in the form of microfilm were smuggled out of the Soviet Union. In 1980, the survival and the fate of the first in Switzerland published in Russian, after which it was translated into English, French, German, the publishing sensation in Europe and America. Until 1988, it was established in the Soviet Union literary journal on bodyguards and four series, published after the booklet.
Authorized surging news, excerpts from Chinese version translator Yan Yongxing parts written by the translator, one of sequencing, Vasily Grossman described in detail as well as the classics.
The 1950, walixi·geluosiman in his study reading.
First, “lack of organizers – evaluation of the party to win”
Waxili·xiemiaonuoweiqi·geluosiman in China is almost a strange name, than Ostrovsky, author of how the steel was tempered only four years younger, fame is a lot smaller than austenitic. But on the level of talent and artistic, thoughtful, higher Grossman did not know how much.
Grossman was born in 1905 in deeply under the influence of Jewish culture of Ukraine of Berdichev, mother as Jewish. In 1929, graduated from the Moscow State University Department of mathematics and physics. After graduation he was the famous Donbass mining engineer. In 1932, he will own the first work of the geliukawufu send it to Gorky, seek the advice master soon received his reply. Gorky that he must overcome the description of Donbass miners on the life and work of naturalism, remove the extra episodes, more rational organization of material. Grossman seems to be an eye-opener and a modified spent a year in 1934, this Novella published in the literature on bass. The same year, his first short story published in the literary journal of the city of Berdichev, Gorky after reading, invited him to meet. Grossman recalls meeting a great influence on his future life.
Coincidentally, paralyzed in bed Ostrovsky from 1932 to 1934, to express how the steel was tempered, literary works can be said to be two people at the same time start, a Gorky inspiration, a Polish editing, but Grossman has just started, Obama has leapt.
Grossman and catch up, and published some short stories of the happiness (1935), the four days (1936), the collection of short stories (1937) and the second of the Cook (1937) and still I was a pawn in the literary world. Four-volume set of novel sijiepan·keerqiujin (1937-1940) made him famous among the literary circles. This work describes the growth of Stepan youth workers on the road to revolution, but the subject matter and technique works, abound in the Soviet Union at that time, was not a top grade.
During the great patriotic war, as a military correspondent for the star, Grossman has been active in the front line, wrote the famous sudden directions, such as the teleibulin of hell. Medium-the people are immortal 1942 published in the Star newspaper, became classics of Soviet war literature. From war to war, Soviet writer created a body of work, praises the Soviet people against Germany the heroism and courage of the fascist. These works is greatly encouraged by the good fight in the war, to defend the homeland and rebuild on the ruins of the Soviet military after the war. Including the people are immortal, and advantages of war literature in this period, is the publicity of patriotism and national spirit, heroism, with unite as one to overcome Germany fascism’s firm belief and masculinity. Which reflects the face of savage vicious enemies and when the severe situation, as the writer of a strong sense of responsibility and mission, meanwhile, is also the political, military and social policies of literature and art in the complex background. Nobody wrote the unorthodox works at this moment, only feather boy like Solzhenitsyn, buzhishenqian from the front only to write to friends, cursed Stalin, himself suffering from bond Xie.
In 1943, Grossman started writing novels depicting the battle of Stalingrad, the first part of the for a just cause in 1952 and published in the fourth issue of the new world. This work took nine years to complete. During the upheaval of the world, war literature is no exception. If said, 20th century 40 to 50 early of war literature, single by earth-shattering of hero deeds, will can meet fought, and get liberation and immersed in victory joy in the of mass of emotional resonance and times need words, so at of readers has began has on war of reflection, they requirements understand war of real, and people by by suffering of real, and human heart by by trauma of real. In other words, writers to tell the truth, write real. Because the only real ordinary, profound philosophy can be found. They survive, not because there was so much fun, it is because there is a lot of suffering, those suffering under their struggle, are gone, and sublimation from memory, face the future calmly and wanted to be.
Nine years of sword of Grossman, keenly felt this mentality and the needs of the reader, of the for a just cause, show him a thrilling station the defense of Stalingrad, a battalion of soldiers battle to the end, no shaking retreat, no survivors. Work crazy about Stalingrad in August also describes Hitler’s air force bombed and Red Army soldiers defending the city, workers ‘ militia, the entire population of perseverance and fate. Once the work is published, and rave reviews. In July of the same year, Ukraine poet Ba Rang to the letter, expressed sincere gratitude to him, thank him for creating such a humane, thoughtful, not say flattery works. In early 1953, a Leningrad reader wrote to him saying, the last ten years without a work as to the cause of Justice that touched her heart. But on Grossman of criticism also followed, February 13, 1953, critics bubinnuofu in truth reported Shang published articles, criticism novel “except several chapters outside, completely is failed of”, and “Soviet people of image in long in the is pale of, and obedience of, and no features of”, and “author tries to proved, is ordinary of people established has immortal of feats”, and “lack on this victory of organizers–party of evaluation”.
In March, the 19th day after the death of Stalin, Soviet Writers Association Council meeting, General Secretary of the writers ‘ Association Ludvig Faddeev, entitled “writer’s association with certain issues” report, harshly criticized Grossman of the just cause of the spread of “circulating the reactionary idealistic philosophy of good and evil” and “conflict-free”. In 1954, the work for publication, Grossman had to make a lot of changes, but it is still difficult to escape. After 1956, his works are not allowed to publish and reprint, a writer of reputation is not very big and out of the Lake. But for the political opportunity, maybe he really will always be faded out in the literary world.
In 1945, walixi·geluosiman with the Soviet forces into Berlin.
Second, the “why my novel as a murderer like that be held? ”
Soviet culture mechanism is very peculiar, on the one hand want to celebrate someone’s reputation, even if his false pale staggering, on the other hand some writers as foreigners, into the other register, derogatory, and criticism. Cheerleaders celebrate and storm of derogatory, are derived from a period of literary policies and some mean sly, snobbish attitude, and poles apart from normal, healthy culture. This disaster more than Grossman, a man, but he is unwilling to stop now, to stop writing, and unwilling to change course, the crowd, waiting for the only thing he is more tragic ending.
Four years of brutal war, mother and other relatives in the war suffered a tragic fate, hard at work writing derogatory block was after the war, to a cultural people, was the most painful, Grossman into a deeply spiritual loneliness. But it is the unspeakable loneliness, enabling him to thoroughly wash the bustle of life with the bubble reputation, to dialogue with the relatives and friends of the dead and buried, seek the truth, dig deeper in history, war, life and fate and refined.
Soviet 20 the opening and exposed to the personality cult, Soviet literature began to “thaw” the climate, Grossman cold lonely heart full of hope and new life, his mind, again expressed through literature he formed the history of philosophy. So, although he to creation of survival and fate is two Department song of second Department, although works of plot clues still to Stalingrad battle for mainline, although to justice of career of hero except died in who, many characters still in novel world in the continues to life and fighting, by with survival and fate of suffering and fiddling with, but works from idea, and concept, and technique to overall of thought art level, are occurred has great of changes, completed has once leap, reached has new of height. If the writers of the for a just cause to express the highest idea is fighting for Justice for the people is invincible, then in existence and the fate of, everything is much more complicated, rich and deep. Writers have not merely the description of historical events, describes the lives and destinies of the characters, but in real life, and of human existence and destiny describes the phenomenon of blooming everywhere in light of your thoughts, as well as to the society, war, ethnic, human destiny the unique insights into the light.
From 1953 to 1961, Grossman in solitude and silence, this eight-year period, finally completing the more than 700,000-word Opus. Surrounded by silence and devoted all his side except a bunch of talent and the thick document, there is not even a friend. He gently tone, bitterly shook, tired eyes closed. He did not know, tomorrow to the editorial office, his survival and the fate of what fate will have. He didn’t think, at this moment, he completed his will in future be known as the “war and peace in the 20th century” classics, he completed a bruising from the real cultural breakthrough. n the logic of the tax reduction
The next day, he nervously to the flag magazine, heavy editing of the manuscript to receive him, followed by nervous waiting. He ever expected, even is in kHz Khrushchev ruling period, even is in many “special” works have staged of “thaw” climate conditions Xia, editorial of edit, and editor are, read has he of survival and fate, also is scare have a Buddha was born, II Buddha Nirvana kopan, lest by implicated and allegations, quickly will all manuscript make to has national security Committee, is makes Soviet people turn pale at the of KGB. Grossman left, right, was such as KGB officers searched all the things associated with the manuscript, including printer paper and print Ribbon were seized, his books were banned again.
Grossman once again stunned that his heart was trembling again, brilliant and rolling diction of great writers on weekdays, unfamiliar government system of weights, clumsy and no defensive capability, unable to mobilize his words, do a decent argument. Until we learned Grossman fell ill, he wrote a letter to the supreme leader Nikita Khrushchev trembling, trying to take some reasonable grounds to back to top:
Why ban me this may to some extent to meet the spiritual needs of Soviet people book, and this is no lie and slander, only the truth, pain and love for the people of the book? Why should I be confiscated the manuscript administrative acts of violence means, and use it as a murderer to be held … … If I had this book full of lies, let the people who want to read it, let me in 30 years for readers to judge the creation of Soviet Union, let them say, in my book, either truth or lies. However, readers were deprived of using the world’s most serious courts (I am referring to is the soul of the Court, the Court of conscience) to judge the possibility of me and my work. Past and now I want to have a court. (The literature 1988 tenth, the 28th page)
Appeal, says Grossman should have thought, but in the survival and the fate of it devoted too much effort on, he cannot have too high hopes for Khrushchev. Wall eight years, he in indifferent and out silence in the makes himself of art talent get has once overall meaning Shang of sublimation, also makes himself has has a copies not ignored others around of courage and calmly, he even dared to in himself of book in the pointed out that, Soviet people to himself of flesh-and-blood of body fight fascist, is not to Stalin, but to himself, to himself of national, to post-war can has more big of free, and more better of life. In that case, was he afraid of? In the Soviet Union, in Russia, there are many scholars must not be afraid of the truth, those who sacrificed their lives for the people, but they can’t. Grossman was not arrested, he was not afraid of being arrested, but in reverence and awe, agonizingly wait alone in Khrushchev’s approval. In 1964, he died from cancer in Moscow, left the banned works and lasting regret.
In 1945, walixi·geluosiman Germany, Berlin.
Third, the “200 years later can not be published”
Sources said Grossman who has learned his fate. Adzhubei according to Khrushchev’s son-in-law in the 1980 of the 20th century memoirs revealed that Khrushchev had either not read the letter from Grossman, or did not understand the essence of it, in short, did not reply to Grignard. But he said the supervisor at that time ideology of Soviet Politburo member Mikhail Suslov had met with Grossman and said: “don’t think that novels, perhaps 200 years later published it. ”
According to the literary journal of the Soviet Union on July 6, 1988, baklanov, famous writer of the 19th all-Union Congress statement revealed that Mikhail Suslov had said “the survival and the fate of the novels published 200 years later, it is impossible.” Two claims are not exactly the same, but the meaning is clear, that mastering the book works of important officials actually sentenced to life imprisonment. But was a great joke on history with Mikhail Suslov, less than 20 years, the survival and the fate of 1980 in Switzerland published Russian texts. In 1982, Mikhail Suslov, I cannot get rid of nature, died. In 1984, works have been translated into German, 1986 English United States release, as far as I could see, caused a sensation and strong reaction. English translator luobote·qiandele in “objective”, said: “this is a real ‘ war and peace ‘ of the century”. Woerfu·beikeer wrote on December 3, 1984, der Spiegel weekly said that “work is moving” Grossman “kind of fearless courage worthy of admiration”. Luodena·xinli weekly in the New York Times Book review (March 9, 1986) commentary pointed out that the survival and the success of fate is the author of “major of high seriousness and his compelling historical, moral and political thinking.”
In 1988, the existence and fate of wandering finally returned to the motherland after more than 20 years, readers meet with the Soviet Union. Work of bodyguards, the first magazine published the first part of the first, it caused a sensation, and the reader’s interest, people are eagerly waiting for publishing its next edition of the magazine. Period of work is divided into four series, nearly 300,000 copies per print run, are being snapped up in less than two days, can’t buy the magazine had to photocopy or handwritten, described as “instant hit, wanliujingyang”. Readers write to newspapers, praised this “cry” and “exciting” Magnum Opus, called it a read over the years, “best work”. Tula, a pension to the elders of the literary newspaper wrote: “I remember that I read out long, Grossman of the for a just cause, how to wait for its sequel … … Lucky was that I waited, was painful, unexpectedly took more than 30 years of time. “(The literature 1988 Nineth)
History is fair, true art is not buried. Living left out, killed the densely hung funerary couplets, the writing life, pursued the truth and ideal for writers, that contrary to the fate of big ups and downs in the Soviet Union was not unusual. Literary scholars and critics to the survival and the fate of the highly rated, abominable. Introduction abalone and Rove said Tuesday they may wish to comment on the two paragraphs.
Bao Qia Rove, born in 1922, Professor at Moscow University, writing a lot, study and comment on books about Soviet literature nearly 20, 1973 due to one of the people of Socialist humanitarianism and war • postwar military prose famous. He has written for the survival and the fate of tens of thousands of words of the PostScript, and compared with Tolstoy’s ‘ war and peace ‘. He said:
Our critics often sigh, where there are similar to ‘ war and peace ‘, describes the epic of war from 1941 to 1945? The existence and destiny as well as their strong historical and philosophical view is that works of this size. (In 1988 for the first period of the bodyguards, 129th)
Aim, born in 1925, the famous war writers, Association of Soviet writers CPC, bodyguards and magazine editor, he wrote,:
Grossman was the greatest writers of our time, of the existence and the fate of the classics of the Soviet literature. (The literary newspaper on August 24, 1988)
Visible, academic evaluation of Grossman and the survival and the fate of unusually high. Of course, the concluding paragraph quoted here are just a few of the comments, critics of own their work in detail, without the author here.
D “‘ war and peace ‘ of the 20th century”
At that time, early reading of the existence and destiny, I was the author bold ideas, sharp strokes tear jerker’s and the characters ‘ tragic fate and smitten with the works of epic scale. As scholars of current situation of Soviet literature, I read a large number of new publications, or even “regression” works of Soviet literature, but none works, such as the existence and fate has so much power, has epic scale, like ‘ war and peace ‘. My excitement, I can’t wait to move to GeSHi works translated and introduced to Chinese readers. However, due to the omission of a link, I could not be on the fair to proofread translations do more editing, that leave irreparable defect. Ten years later, the Yilin publishing house bought the copyright for this book, Second Edition, gives me a “correct mistakes” opportunities.
Similarly, the gathering of international situation over the years, especially the collapse of the Soviet Union and China’s great achievement in its reform and opening policy, so I learned, and understand many things, look back, re-read the existence and destiny, feelings and experience, really can be called “don’t be a feeling in their hearts.”
At that time, works in its native Soviet Union caused a stir and buzz first, because it is a “banned” is one imposed by Soviet leaders Mikhail Suslov had “it” works. Today, the man is gone, formal attire has scattered into the mud, his name had been left behind, but the majority of readers, is to see that year was his “shoot” what was this book will let him go on the rampage.
Perhaps this is reverse psychology. However, after reading the book they found, the original book is filled with strong sense of reflection, Grossman of history, historical events, wars, the battle of Stalingrad, for millions of people the fate of them and the tragic fate of the cause for deep reflection, bold and sharp with them put forward their opinions and views. These views and opinions are not the writers in the current Gorbachev’s reforms, openness and democratize the situation came about. As a result, writers of extraordinary historical and philosophical perspectives, writers of conscience and courage of his integrity, he finished the piece after the misfortune, entice the reader to his reverence and long “fanatical” interest.
In fact, these two alone is far from enough, it is still possible to like Fireworks in the night sky, colorful, hit, then vanish, unable to light room, not Russia forever peaceful civilization on the vast land of fire. Only as good as Tolstoy’s ‘ war and peace ‘ of literary and artistic works, to make history as a mirror, to make moral values in cultural heritage, to make cohesion of peoples for peace, the pursuit of a better tomorrow.
So, what Grossman? He could be the war from 1941 to 1945, written like the epic war and peace? It can be said that he did it. Life and fate is an excellent literary work, Grand, clues and delicate, rich in characters, magnificent, with a truly epic scale, “closest to Leo Tolstoy in war and peace by sticking Russia epic tradition” (Bao Qia Rove), called the ‘ war and peace ‘ of the 20th century.
Life and fate, “su”, Vasily Grossman and his Yan Yongxing and Zheng Hailing/translated by CITIC publishing house in October 2015.